The sensor nodes are deployed either inside the phenonenon or very close to it. They may self-organize into clusters or collabrate together to complete a task that is issued by the users. In addition, the positions of these nodes do not nedd to be predefined. As a result, the sensor nodes are fit for many applications, e.g., location tracking and chemical detection in areas not easily accessible. Since sensing applications generates a large quantitiy of data, these data many be fused or aggregated together to lower energy consumption. The sensor nodes use their processing abilities to locally carry out simple computations and transmit only the required and partially processed data. In uses with intelligence and a better understanding of the environments. In the future, the wireless sensor networks many be an integral part of our lives, more so than the present-day personal computers.
A Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) connects independent nodes (e.g. sensors and actuators) that are situated in the clothes, on the body or under the skin of a person. The network typically expands over the whole human body and the nodes are connected through a wireless communication channel. According to the implementation, these nodes are placed in a star or multihop topology.
A WBAN offers many promising new applications in the area of remote health monitoring, home/health care, medicine, multimedia, sports and many other, all of which make advantage of the unconstrained freedom of movement a WBAN offers. In the medical field, for example, a patient can be equipped with a wireless body area network consisting of sensors that constantly measure specific biological functions, such as temperature, blood pressure, heart rate, electrocardiogram (ECG), respiration, etc. The advantage is that the patient doesn’t have to stay in bed, but can move freely across the room and even leave the hospital for a while. This improves the quality of life for the patient and reduces hospital costs. In addition, data collected over a longer period and in the natural environment of the patient, offers more useful information, allowing for a more accurate and sometimes even faster diagnosis.
- Real-time communications
- Energy/Temperature aware routing
- Mobility aware WBAN
- Geographical routing